The church, with its 56 m (183 ft) steeple, was completed in 1729 by architect Robert Twelves in the Georgian style.
After the Boston Massacre in 1770, yearly anniversary meetings were held at the church until 1775. In 1773 5,000 people met in the Meeting House to debate British taxation, and after the meeting a group raided a nearby tea ship in what became known as the Boston Tea Party. In 1775 the British occupied the Meeting House due to its association with the Revolutionary cause. The British gutted the building, filled it with dirt and then used the interior to practice horse riding.
Today, the Old South Meeting House is open daily as a museum and continues to provide a place for people to meet, discuss and act on important issues of the day.